varicose veins and some treatment options

Varicose Veins: Why They Occur and What You Can Do About Them

Do you have unsightly veins showing on your legs? Does it cause pain when you stand for too long?


You’re not alone. Statistics indicate that 20-25 million Americans suffer from varicose veins. In order to receive proper treatment or get varicose vein removal, it is important to have a good understanding of its various forms and causes.


How do veins work?

The human vascular system is made up of millions of blood vessels. We have three types of blood vessels. There’s the artery, responsible for carrying oxygen-rich blood into the heart. The capillary enables the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues; and finally, there’s the vein carries oxygen-poor blood from the capillaries back toward the heart.


Veins are arranged in a specific way to support blood flow to the heart and other organs. The deep veins run vertically within the muscles. Meanwhile, the superficial veins are a network of a thousand blood vessels. When the veins have trouble pumping blood, it begins to pool and leads to the appearance of varicose veins.


Varicose veins’ causes and symptoms

There are several known causes for spider and varicose veins:

  • As people get older, there’s a significant decrease in the body’s ability to produce collagen. As such, small venous problems can transform into larger ones. They swell and bulge, ultimately becoming more visible.
  • Vein disorders tend to run in families. If your parents or grandparents have DVT, then you are more predisposed to having them yourself and will perhaps require varicose vein removal at some point.
  • Lack of movement in the joints and limbs can contribute to having vein problems too. Standing for particularly long periods of time hinders leg muscles from pumping blood properly and may cause the entire process to slow down entirely.


Vein disease can range from cosmetic annoyances to a condition that’s more life-threatening. The presence of varicose veins can make the skin feel tight and itchy. In severe cases, an affected individual will experience cramping and pain in the affected area. If you think you have vein problems, it is important to see a board certified vein care specialist so your condition can be properly evaluated and the right treatment options can be recommended.


Treatment options

Advancements in the field of varicose vein removal means that there are more treatment options out there than ever before. There are some that don’t require any surgery at all so a patient with vein problems won’t have a much shorter recovery period.


Here’s a closer look at what these types of options are:

  • Spider Vein Laser Treatment. Typically used on unwanted facial spider veins. A beam of light penetrates the skin and destroys these superficial vessels. The procedure is safe, painless, and highly effective, providing remarkable results with minimal risks.
  • This procedure is often done for cosmetic purposes to eliminate the unsightly appearance of spider veins. Innovations made in this treatment have now made it possible to get rid of larger veins as well.
  • VNUS closure. This targets enlarged varicose veins by using radiofrequency energy to heat and shrink the vein, reducing its appearance and promoting blood flow to other, healthier veins.
  • Endovenous Laser Ablation. This laser treatment is used for varicose vein removal in more severe cases. A laser fiber enters the vein from a tiny incision, applies laser energy, and treats the vein from within.


Use the information above to determine your symptoms, but more importantly, seek proper medical attention. Pain may not be present right now but remember, it can be an indicator of a more serious vein condition. So it’s best to have yourself checked at the earliest appearance of varicose veins.


We specialize in diagnosis and treatment for any and all vascular health issues for patients in San Diego County, Orange County and Riverside County. For more information or to set an appointment, please contact us.

wound care san diego

Caring For Chronic Wounds



Chronic wounds require proper attention and treatment, so patients should be aware of all possible options. Professional wound care is an important alternative that you must consider to treat chronic wounds.


Chronic wounds include, but are not limited to, diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous leg ulcers. These wounds are all very different and it can be difficult for a lot of professionals to choose the best treatment. They consume a huge deal of healthcare resources worldwide.


Wound Healing


The physiological wound healing process consists of 4 temporary and overlapping phases called hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.


Pathophysiology of Chronic Wounds


Chronic wounds are considered chronic because they fail to follow the normal phases of healing in an orderly and timely fashion. In fact, most chronic wounds stall at the inflammation phase of healing. Chronic wounds often share the same features even if they have big differences in etiology at the molecular level.


Chronic Wound Care


When it comes to wound care, a number of things must be considered. Take note that chronic wound care is a complex process, so there are many steps to take. Here is an example of an average wound healing regimen that you might be interested in.


Confirmation and documentation


You need to verify the status of injury when you engage in chronic wound care. You have to determine the cause and the persistence of the wound you are concerned about. Remember that wounds are not considered chronic unless they persist for at least 6 weeks.


There are a few other warning signs to look for to determine if you have a chronic wound. These would include pus and drainage, redness, swelling, pain, constant itching, and fever.


Preparing the wound site


After determining and understanding the basics of the particular wound, the next thing to do is to focus on preparing the wound site. The preparation involves getting rid of potential hindrances to the effective healing of the wound.


Understanding the wound is part of wound care. This involves knowing the accompanying level of pain, color and amount of exudate or debris, and the presence of tracts.


After you have a comprehensive understanding of the wound, you must make sure it is clean. This includes the sterilization of the wound and prevention of microbe infiltration. It is then important to make sure there is an appropriate level of moisture in and around the particular wound area.


Picking of Proper Dressing


Remember that each wound type can be different, even if they show many of the same symptoms. Each require their own type of dressing. Likewise, it can be difficult to know the method that you should use.


If the wound needs more moisture, then it must be applied with hydrogel dressing. If the skin is sensitive around the wound, a non-adherent dressing is needed for the prevention of painful tearing. If the wound has a lot of depth to it, you can fill it with an alginate dressing. You should use enough to cover the size of the cavity.


Wound care is more than just managing your wound, because it requires proper attention and medical expertise. It is essential that you follow the advice of your physician so that chronic wound conditions will be effectively treated and cured.


We specialize in diagnosis and treatment for any and all vascular health issues for patients in San Diego County, Orange County and Riverside County. For more information or to set an appointment, please contact us.

varicose vein removal orange county

Possible Treatments For Varicose Veins

Are you one of the people that suffer from varicose veins? Well, you be in luck because there are many possible treatments. Some of these treatments have just recently become widely known. Varicose vein removal is one of the options that you can consider for your conditions.


Many people with varicose veins only use compression stockings to provide relief. However, if this is not enough to relieve your symptoms, then you can resort to surgical removal. Smaller varicose veins can be removed using a technique called sclerotherapy.


Surgical Treatments


There are common ways to remove varicose veins surgically. In fact, there are a number of different methods to surgically remove varicose veins. Some worry about the safety of these surgeries, but the blood supply in your legs will not be harmed with varicose vein surgery. This is because the blood will be redirected into the other healthy veins in your body. Deep and superficial surgeries can be done to treat varicose veins and relieve the symptoms.


  • Vein Stripping – this method will allow the whole vein to be pulled out by way of incision close to the groin. A couple of cuts have to be made below the groin and behind the knee joint. In some cases the cut can also be made at the ankle.
  • Phlebectomy – when you have varicose veins, you can undergo this type of surgery, which involves very small incisions or cuts just millimeters along the affected vein.


Alternative treatments are also available, such as radiofrequency ablation, endovenous laser ablation, and transilluminated powered phlebectomy or Trivex. However, these more recent treatment methods may also have side effects, such as scarring and bruising. Complications such as infections or nerve damage are less common in these newer treatments than conventional surgery though.




Another varicose vein removal method is sclerotherapy. This includes the injecting of foam or liquid into the affected vein. The substance injected will damage the vein walls and will close it off. This method is generally used for treatment of small or medium-sized superficial varicose veins.


This procedure is very effective for treating varicose veins. In some cases, you may even find very small difference in the results between vein stripping and sclerotherapy.


Among the side effects of this procedure is the development of vein inflammation or phlebitis. Among 100 people that were tested, 10 of them developed this side effect. It was also found out that the skin where the injection was made could become slightly discolored.


Nevertheless, side effects like bruising or nerve damage is less common with sclerotherapy in comparison to vein surgery. Another advantage is that people can go back to their usual activities much sooner after undergoing sclerotherapy.


There is potential for future methods including the use of laser devices to be used to close off varicose veins. These methods would not make incisions in the skin. However, not enough research has been done to fully support this technique and we have not been able to determine how well the treatment would relieve the symptoms.


Varicose vein removal Orange County can treat the symptoms so that you can enjoy your life more. Find out how you can make a difference today!

We specialize in diagnosis and treatment for any and all vascular health issues for patients in San Diego County, Orange County and Riverside County. For more information or to set an appointment, please contact us.

spider vein removal orange county

Treatment and Management for Spider Veins

To this day, spider veins are a common occurrence for many people. It has affected a majority of the population, so much so, that spider vein removal services are not hard to find. In Orange County or in any parts of California, there are already quite a number of facilities that offer spider vein removal.


San Diego Vascular Center has top notch and world-class facilities that assure patients experience quality services for treatments such as spider vein removal. Before going through spider vein removal in Orange County, San Diego, or wherever you prefer, it’s important to know more about these conditions, its possible treatments, and management.


What are Spider Veins?


Generally, spider veins aren’t as serious when compared to varicose veins. However, it could be an indication of some other vascular health issues. To further understand this matter, it’s important to understand more about how your veins work inside your body.


Spider veins usually occur in one’s legs, feet, and/or possibly the face. These spider veins are formed when superficial veins closer to the skin leak out tiny amounts of blood. It causes discoloration in those veins which can easily be seen with the naked eye.


Since these are quite common occurrences, there are quite a lot of products dedicated to addressing spider vein issues. Some brands produce creams, concealers, and serum that contain vitamin K that is said to promote blood clotting and reduce leakage and prevent the occurrence of spider veins.


One thing about these topical treatments is that they don’t often promise lasting results. In fact, a lot of physicians don’t always recommend this as a permanent solution to treating and managing spider veins. Oftentimes, products like these are only recommended as an adjunctive therapy to a more permanent course of treatment for this condition.


Spider Vein Treatment and Management


There are procedures dedicated solely to the treatment of spider veins. Although these veins are generally harmless, they can be a source of burning and pain, especially when a person has been standing for long periods of time. For individuals who are concerned about their spider veins, there are quite a few treatment options that they can choose from.


Sclerotherapy – This procedure doesn’t need anesthesia and could easily be performed in your doctor’s office. The doctor will inject each vein with a solution that closes the veins. This way, the blood will reroute themselves through healthier veins. Oftentimes, these veins fade out in a few weeks but sometimes doctors will require the vein to be injected more than once.


Laser Surgery – This procedure won’t require large incisions or injections. Using strong bursts of light, laser surgery will make the affected veins slowly disappear. However, it should be known that laser surgery is less effective than that of sclerotherapy. This is especially true when treating larger veins through this procedure.


After treatment, some doctors may prescribe some add-on therapy for spider vein management. These are certain things patients can do on their own. It is unlikely, but if a patient is experiencing a side effect that is of concern after treatment, it’s best to consult your doctor for further treatment or other pain management options.



We specialize in diagnosis and treatment for any and all vascular health issues for patients in San Diego County, Orange County and Riverside County. For more information or to set an appointment, please contact us.

chronic wound care san diego

Some Common Post-Operative Complications

Chronic Wound Care Services in San Diego are very accessible. For patients who are seeking chronic wound care, San Diego Vascular Center is one of the top facilities in the region that can provide the best possible services within the city.


About Chronic Wounds


Research shows that millions of people in America need chronic wound care. These are wounds that tend not to heal after four weeks and more. These cases are commonly linked to diseases like diabetes. These patients often suffer from foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous leg ulcers.


People who are suffering from chronic wounds may need surgery and therapy. If not attended to, chronic wounds can take a turn for the worse and develop serious complications. Some cases may even require amputation.


Through surgery and sound medical therapy, medical professionals are more than capable to address the infection, avoid the situation from worsening, and save the limb or body part from amputation. Patients should know and understand the severity of their chronic wound and be ready for the challenges and take the steps needed to heal the wound.


Whenever doctors or medical professionals recommend patients to go through surgery as a course of treatment, it’s important to be prepared. You should know the possible outcomes and complications that may possibly arise post-surgery.


Common Post-Operative Complications


Surgeons will always advise their patients about the possible outcomes after a surgical procedure. This prepares the patient before he or she agrees to have the surgery performed. Among the possible outcomes that may arise are postoperative complications.


Postoperative complications are divided into two categories: general and specific. Among the common ones include atelectasis, postoperative fever, wound infection, and embolism. Those cases with postoperative complications often see them between one to three days after the surgery.


Specific complications, on the other hand, can usually be more extensive. They often occur in distinct transitory patterns. It could occur early postoperative, throughout the entire postoperative period, several days post-op, or in the later parts of the postoperative period.


Immediate, early, and late post-op complications


There are also common complications post-surgery that are immediate. A patient can encounter primary and reactionary hemorrhages either during surgery or following postoperative due to an increase in blood pressure.


Minor lung collapse or basic atelectasis, blood loss from shock, primary embolism, and low urine output are also immediate postoperative complications that can happen to a patient depending on the nature of the surgery.


The most common early post-op complication is pain. Although pain is normal once a patient comes out of surgery, recurring and extreme pain may require your doctor’s attention. Postoperative fever is also quite common as well as secondary hemorrhages that are a result of an infection. Pneumonia, anastomosis dehiscence, UTI and postoperative wound infection is also possible.


Possible late postoperative complications include pertinent sinus, incisional hernia, bowel obstruction, keloid formation, and even recurrence of a disease.


Wound Infection as a postoperative complication


As mentioned, postoperative wound infections are a common complication post-surgery. While wounds can usually be addressed, there are also chronic wounds or life-threatening wounds that may occur such as gas gangrene.


If you’re about to go through an operation, always remember to consult your doctor of the possibilities that may occur post-surgery. If anything does bother you, always seek their professional assistance.


We specialize in diagnosis and treatment for any and all vascular health issues for patients in San Diego County, Orange County and Riverside County. For more information or to set an appointment, please contact us.

varicose vein removal

Treatments in Varicose Vein Removal

Although not dangerous, many would find varicose veins rather unsightly. Standing for too long counts as one of many reasons it develops, but factors such as age, family history, pregnancy, and obesity also put you at risk. Given some of the risk factors, there is no surefire way of preventing varicose veins from forming. While there are ways to prevent them from getting worse, those who already suffer from them can turn to different varicose vein removal methods.


Treatment options


A lot of progress has been made in the realm of treating varicose veins. Treatments in the past were painful procedures, but modern technology has introduced new and painless methods in removing varicose veins.


Instead of listening to blood flow using a Doppler device, duplex ultrasounds – which takes a two-dimensional photo – are now used to examine the leg’s circulatory system. By knowing the exact vein affected helps determine the kind of treatment to use.


Varicose veins are blood vessels, but they are superficial; the real working veins lie deeper. As such, the surface veins can be removed without affecting leg circulation.


In the past, treatment involved inserting a metal rod into the vein through an incision made at the groin. The rod was passed through and capped at the other end. The surface vein was stripped by pulling back the rod through the leg and out through the incision. The low-lying veins then take over once the “gnarly” ones have been taken out.


The stripping method of the past isn’t performed anymore. Today, the affected vein can be heated by radio waves, causing the collagen to collapse. Although the procedure still requires inserting a thin catheter into the vein, it is made painless with the injection of a mixture of anesthesia and fluid. Bruising might occur and it might take eight weeks for the vein to re-absorb.


Another varicose vein removal method is through the use of lasers, which sends concentrated light which collapses the affected vein. The procedure does cause a bit of discomfort when the laser touches the skin, but it is quickly cooled off.


Sclerotherapy is another technique used to treat varicose veins. The method involves using an agent that is agitated with air to form a foam that is injected into the affected vein. The walls of the vein then swells, blocking off the problematic vein and allowing the deep-lying venous system to take over.


Preventing existing varicose veins from getting worse


Some of the risk factors for developing varicose veins are hard to avoid. However, there are ways to prevent existing varicose veins from getting worse. These include:


  • Avoiding periods of prolonged sitting and standing. Doing so makes it difficult for blood to travel in leg veins causing pressure in veins to rise. Moving around helps reduce pressure and improve blood circulation.


  • Wearing compression hosiery. This keeps vein valves in the right position so they can function properly. Choose a compression level based on how damaged your veins are.


  • Living a healthy lifestyle. Your best bet against the varicose veins risk factors you can’t control is to make healthy lifestyle choices. Eating healthy, drinking lots of water, and exercising regularly are powerful allies in preventing more damage to veins.


Varicose veins may not be dangerous, but some may not like the sight of ugly veins on their legs. The good news is that there are different varicose vein removal methods that can be done to remove such an unsightly presence.

We specialize in diagnosis and treatment for any and all vascular health issues for patients in San Diego County, Orange County and Riverside County. For more information or to set an appointment, please contact us.

chronic wound care san diego

6 Things to Be Aware of with Chronic Wounds

According to an article published in the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, wound care is a worldwide problem that costs multi-billion dollars. In the U.S. alone, it has an annual cost of $20 billion and affects 5.7 million people.


This underlines the importance of chronic wound care San Diego clinic has to offer. Time to find the wound care center near you.


There are also some things you need to be aware of about chronic wounds in order to identify the right treatment.


It doesn’t go through the typical phases of healing.

Wounds normally heal in 4 main phases – Hemostasis Phase, Defensive/Inflammatory Phase, Proliferative Phase, and Maturation Phase.


Chronic wounds are usually stuck in the first 2 phases. They don’t stop bleeding completely or long enough for the blood clotting system to work, and they don’t coagulate to remove debris and prevent bacterial growth.


It can be caused by an antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

A strain of bacteria called Pseudomonas aeruginosa is found in many chronic wounds. Because it has a strong resistance to standard antibiotics, taking medication may not be the best treatment option.


People with compromised immune systems are generally affected by serious P. aeruginosa infections. The bacteria will also affect hospital patients with wounds that were not properly sanitized.


Diabetes is a likely culprit.

People with diabetes have impaired circulation and glucose-heavy blood, both of which keep wound from healing quickly and promote bacterial infection.


The neuropathic loss of feeling that some diabetic patients experience prevents them from feeling the soreness and warmth of a wound, indicating an infection.


Inadequate nutrition prevents wounds from healing.

Protein is needed to promote new cell and tissue growth. If a patient rarely eats protein-rich food, they lack the nutrients that can hasten healing of chronic wounds. The situation is even worse if a patient eats more fat than protein. Fats can impair your immune system’s response, resulting in delays of wound healing.


Proper cleaning can promote healing.

Chronic wound care specifies that a wound must be completely cleaned before it is dressed. Therefore, it is important to ensure that any debris is removed before wound dressing is applied to prevent bacterial infection and to promote proper healing.


Irrigating the wound thoroughly using a saline solution is an effective way to prevent contamination and ensure the wound would heal without delay.


Early Detection of Signs of Infection Is Key

Chronic wounds have certain characteristics that indicate the need to visit a chronic wound care San Diego center.


A wound can become chronic if:

  • It takes a long time to heal, increasing the risk of developing infections.
  • It spontaneously bleeds despite efforts to dress it.
  • It exudes odorous drainage that doesn’t usually happen to less-worrisome cuts.
  • The size of the wound appears to increase instead of decrease, which is indicative of healing.


Because untreated wound infections can complicate into conditions that may require hospitalization, such as sepsis, necrosis, and cellulitis, it is highly recommended to visit a chronic wound care San Diego clinic at the first indication of wound infection.


Some wounds just need a doctor’s expertise and possible surgical debridement and systemic antibiotic therapy.


We specialize in diagnosis and treatment for any and all vascular health issues for patients in San Diego County, Orange County and Riverside County. For more information or to set an appointment, please contact us.

varicose veins and spider vein treatment

More Information About Spider Vein Treatment: Causes And Costs

A different type of varicose vein removal that patients exists for patients who would want to get reliable results fast. Spider vein treatment is just one of the many options that you can have for the elimination of stubborn varicose veins.


Basically, the spider vein treatment has been proven effective, safe, and painless for the reduction of spider veins. It involves injecting a solution into the affected vein, which causes the stubborn spider vein to fade. This might also involve laser treatments for the reduction or the removal of such veins.


The occurrence of spider veins are common in women, showing small clusters of red, purple, or blue veins appearing on the ankles, calves, and thighs. In fact, they are already visible at a very young age. Most people wouldn’t notice this until he or she reaches an older age.


The top causes for the appearance of spider veins include heredity, hormonal shifts, type of job or activity, pregnancy, and weight fluctuations. However, this can also vary according to age and lifestyle.


The cost of spider vein treatment might vary, which depends on the type of facility and location or additional fees. You can have it for $326 as the average cost for spider vein treatment. The cost for spider vein treatment has been based on the 2016 statistics, but the price hasn’t been able to fluctuate that much since then.


When treatment for spider veins are done in a certain facility, you can expect varied prices, which depend on the location and other related expenses. For some reasons, spider vein treatment would cost on the basis of surgeon’s fee and post-treatment gear.


Take note that spider vein treatment might not be covered by most health insurance. Related complications or another procedure related to spider vein therapy might not be included as well. In this case, you have to review your health insurance policy carefully.


When considering spider vein therapy, it is very important that you have to choose the surgeon that should be board-certified. This is because the experience of the surgeon is important just as the cost of the procedure.


Well, if you are experiencing a number of symptoms that you think is related to spider vein, then you have to determine that it is indeed what you think it is. Here are top reasons why you should engage in spider vein treatment.


  • If you are bothered by spider veins at any part of your body.
  • If you are advised by your plastic surgeon to follow a certain course of treatment.
  • If you are realistic in your goals and have a positive outlook in the treatment of spider veins.


However, you should also be cautious when considering spider vein therapy because it can bring about some side effects.


  • Bruising and swelling
  • Changing in skin sensation
  • Occurrence of infection
  • Hyperpigmentation
  • Tendency of ulceration
  • Some scarring might be visible
  • Possibility of persistent pain


However, the risks would be discussed further before you would engage in this procedure with your plastic surgeon.



We specialize in diagnosis and treatment for any and all vascular health issues for patients in San Diego County, Orange County and Riverside County. For more information or to set an appointment, please contact us.

varicose vein removal riverside

How Different Patients React To Surgery Vs. Laser For Varicose Vein Removal

When you are facing a tough problem of having uncomfortable varicose veins, a lot of things come into your mind. Among the top choices that you might have thought about were to undergo surgery or opt for laser technology to achieve varicose vein removal. The only downside for these procedures is that they are not guaranteed to give a permanent fix for such conditions.


Thus, patients are encouraged to think it over first before engaging into these types of treatment procedures. In fact, even with surgery, the veins grow back after being cut, while laser treatment sometimes wouldn’t give 100% results in sealing a vein. Thus, it would allow blood to flow back gradually.


Vein Stripping and Laser Ablation Therapy

Based on a study involving 346 men and women having varicose veins, you can see how vein stripping versus laser ablation therapy works. In this study, the participants were given a standard surgery called high ligation and saphenous vein stripping or the one called endovenous laser ablation.


It was found out after a couple of years that the recurrence of varicose veins was similar as the 2 groups. This has caused certain symptoms such as fatigue, heaviness, itching, and swelling. In an ultrasound study, more patients having laser ablation have had their varicose veins reopen or return at the same spot in comparison to those who had been under a vein stripping procedure.


So, around 18 percent of people who had laser ablation therapy went back in the area in the same place in which they were treated. However, only around 1 percent of the participants came back from the vein stripping group. According to the study, people with varicose veins may consider both varicose vein removal procedures but they must also be informed regarding the long-term recurrence the following years.


What Some May Expect After Surgery or Laser

Basically, when you engage in vein stripping surgery, it could cost anywhere around $1,500 to $3,000 including fees as charged by the hospital or any center for surgery. In some instances, surgery could cost around $600 to $3,000. But this would depend on the veins that require treatment.


In addition, the patients who have had laser ablation reported to have slightly more pain in their first week when the procedure was made. In contrast, those who have had vein stripping surgery had only slight pain and they were able to get rid of it more quickly.


Vascular surgeon Tristan Lane from the Imperial College London also stated that the research was able to make it clear that both treatments would work well if done well. Perhaps a new study related to vein stripping or laser ablation should be made in order to determine guaranteed better results.


Moreover, Lane also stressed out that endovenous laser ablation might be able to work, but he notes that one treatment might not fit all patients. This will also be applicable for vein stripping surgery. Thus, when it comes to varicose vein removal, positive results can be achieved even when using other treatment methods.



We specialize in diagnosis and treatment for any and all vascular health issues for patients in San Diego County, Orange County and Riverside County. For more information or to set an appointment, please contact us


Are Varicose Veins Hereditary?

Many people assume that being in great physical shape will keep you from developing varicose veins, however, this is not the case. While an active, healthy lifestyle might ease the severity of varicose veins, or lessen their symptoms, physical condition alone cannot prevent the onset of varicose veins.


Hereditability Study of Varicose Veins

Kohno, Niihara,  Li X, Hamano, Nabika, Shiwaku, Isomura, Morita, Sundquist, and Zöller queried into this topic utilizing data across several generations. Participants with a biological parent afflicted with varicose veins had a significantly greater risk of developing varicose veins, in contrast to participants whose parents did not have varicose veins (standard incidence ratio 2.2; 95% CI, 1.9-2.6).



Speculations as to the root cause of varicose veins typically included work related standing or sitting for prolonged durations, or sitting with legs crossed. However, the study by Kohno and his associates indicates a hereditary component to causation. [3]

Specifically, one gene known as Fork Head gene domain, or FOXC2 (located on chromosome 16), has been identified in connection with venous valve failure in the extremities.[2]  It is important to note that varicose veins are caused by failure of the one-way venous valves, which causes blood to pool and swell the veins.

While environmental and occupational factors also link to causation of varicose veins, these hereditary findings are significant in that they show promise for predictability of varicose veins, as well as the potential for gene therapies related to varicose veins.


Genetically Speaking

The inherited FOX C2 gene mutation, located on the 16th chromosome, is indicated by a red line below after q24.1 [1]
spider vein treatment

The Fox C2 gene mutation is located on the 16th chromosome in a location whose role is to relay instructions for transfer RN’ase to distribute a micro-filamentous protein called Actin. Filamentous Actin, a.k.a. F Actin, is necessary for the structural strength and integrity of venous walls and valves.

Those individuals with the Fox C2 mutation may begin showing signs of varicose veins as early as their adolescent years, whereas those whose varicose veins resulting from external factors tend to see symptoms later in life.


Environmental Factors

Non-hereditary factors linked to the onset of varicose veins include obesity, pregnancy, smoking, prolonged standing or sitting. Symptoms include throbbing, constant pain, swelling, and weakened skin at the site of varicose veins.



Regardless of whether your varicose veins stem from hereditary or non-hereditary factors, it is a known constant that once varicose veins become visible, they will continue to degrade and worsen with time

At the San Diego Vascular Center, our team of board certified vascular surgeons specializes in providing the best minimally invasive, nonsurgical treatment options to patients who wish to have their unsightly varicose and spider vein treated. These procedures are performed in our state-of-the-art outpatient facility and include VNUS closure (Venefit™), EVLA (VenaCure®), sclerotherapy, foam sclerotherapy, and laser spider vein treatment.

The procedures are fast and virtually painless, with minimal downtime. Most patients can return to work within a day.



  1. Linkage to the Fox C2 region of chromosome 16 for varicose veins in otherwise healthy, unselected sibling pairs.
    Ng MY, Andrew T, Spector TD et al. Lymphedema Consortium. Twin research and Genetic epidemiology Unit St Thomas’ Hospital, London ,SE17EH. J Med Genet 2005 Mar: 42:235-9
  2. Familial Transmission of Hospital-Treated Varicose Veins in Adoptees: A Swedish Family Study. J Am Coll Surg.  2016; 223(3):452-60
  3. Kohno K; Niihara H; Li X; Hamano T; Nabika T; Shiwaku K; Isomura M; Morita E; Sundquist K; Zöller B